Visions of Freedom


Over the last three hundred years, ideas of freedom have changed the world, contributing to the collapse of monarchy, the abolition of slavery, the promotion of women's rights, the rise of national independence movements, the advent of self-government, the rise of capitalism and the rise of communism. The idea of freedom remains so powerful that both of the parties in any given conflict often argue that they are its defenders. How can such claims be assessed? Do we know what it means to speak of a free people; a free government; a free economy; or of personal or moral freedom? The aim of this cluster will be to develop a critical understanding of various competing conceptions of freedom and of their historical origins.


Classics/ Ethics/Political Science 170FS: Liberty and Equality: Ancient and Modern Perspectives (CZ, SS, CCI, EI)


Jed Atkins, Blake Byrne Associate Professor of Classical Studies and Associate Professor of Political Science

This course examines the democratic values of liberty and equality in Greek, Roman, and American political thought. Are democracy and liberty allies or foes? What is the relationship between liberty and equality? Is freedom possible under non-democratic regimes? Is individual liberty protected by equal and inalienable human rights? What is the relationship between individual liberties and aspirations for a good and just society? Why have some democratic societies embraced imperialism or slavery? Readings drawn from Aristophanes, Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Polybius, Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, Lincoln, Douglass, London, Du Bois, Hamer, Vonnegut, Shulevitz, and Martin Luther King, Jr., among others.

Markets & Management Studies 190FS — Freedom and the Market (SS, EI, W)


Martha Reeves, Professor of the Practice of Sociology; Director of Markets and Management Studies

The course examines the relationship between freedom and the market. We approach the market from three different perspectives in political philosophy:  the right, the center, and the left. We will also examine how values and culture affect market activities, and how the phenomenon of globalization has both enhanced and reduced individual freedom. In our study of the market, we will engage with several readings. Among them are:

  • Reinventing the Bazaar by John MacMillan
  • Some Things Should Not Be for Sale by Debra Satz
  • Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Freidman
  • Corrosion of Character by Richard Sennett
  • Development as Freedom by Amartya Sen
  • Anarchy, State and Utopia by Richard Nozick

Economics 190FS: Freedom and the History of Economics (CZ, SS)


Bruce Caldwell, Research Professor of Economics

Do our visions of freedom include free markets? What IS a free market? Does a successful market system require government intervention? What kinds of intervention are typically proposed? What sorts of benefits does a market system convey? At what costs? How might we judge a market system in terms of such categories as wealth creation, efficiency in production, the provision of social justice, and effects on the environment?  What sorts of values does a market system presuppose, and what sorts of values does it inculcate? What sorts of alternatives to a market system exist, and what do we think about them? 

We will address these and other questions about a market system through an examination of classic writings by some of the foundational thinkers in the history of economics. The scholars whose works we will discuss include both defenders and critics of markets, among them Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Alfred Marshall, Thorstein Veblen, John Maynard Keynes, Friedrich Hayek, and Joseph Schumpeter.  We will place these writings in the context of their times, but also with an eye towards their relevance for addressing current pressing concerns

Philosophy 124FS — Freedom and Moral Obligation (CZ, EI, W)


Jesse Summers, Academic Dean; Adjunct Assistant Professor in Philosophy 

Are moral obligations limitations on our freedom, or are they, as some philosophers have insisted, the fullest expression of freedom? To understand the disagreement, we’ll look at moral obligations, particularly social and political obligations. How do collective moral obligations, like climate change or reparations for slavery, obligate us individually—or do they? Is freedom of speech morally required? Finally, we will consider Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, in which Kant argued that we are only free when our actions are dictated entirely by morality.